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西门子首席执行官凯飒发表署名文章:中国的伟大转型

发布日期:2017-03-21 09:00:24 【关闭】
摘要:

全球在经过数年、甚至数十年井然有序的繁荣发展后,目前似乎陷入了无序之中。而且这种无序似乎已经成为了一种新秩序—— 新常态。全球发展是否脱离了正常的轨道?

After years, even decades, of predictable and mostly prosperous development, the world now seems to be in disarray. It almost seems like disorder is the new order – the new normal. Has the world gone off the rails?

我认为并没有,但是可以肯定的是,世界正在以迅猛的速度发生着巨大的变化。数字化正在推动技术疾速进步。大数据、机器人(22.650, -0.03, -0.13%)、人工智能以及电动汽车,都仅仅是其中的几个案例。

I wouldn‘t say that, but certainly, the world is changing at breakneck speed. Digitalization is triggering quantum leaps in technological progress. Think of the advances being in the areas such as big data, robotics, artificial intelligence, and electro-mobility.

与此同时,诸如气候变化和人口大规模迁移的全球化发展也给人们带来了不安,许多人因此感到被抛弃和备受冷落。更糟糕的是,随着这种不安情绪被刻意渲染,民粹主义、保护主义和孤立主义的苗头就会死灰复燃,大行其道。

At the same time, global developments like climate change and mass migration are causing anxiety. Many people feel left behind and left out. And, unfortunately, it has become fashionable to pander to these anxieties and stoke the flames of populism, protectionism, and isolationism.

中国国家主席强烈警告了纵容这种情绪将会带来的后果。同时,他也充满信心地描绘了一幅乐观的图景。在今年于瑞士达沃斯举办的世界经济论坛上,习主席将其称为“光明的未来”。

President Xi Jinping strongly warned against the consequences of nurturing such sentiments. And he also dared to be optimistic. At this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, he painted a picture of a “bright future,” as he called it.

习主席在他备受关注的主旨演讲中指出,仅仅因为目前所产生的矛盾和“不平衡”就指责“经济全球化”是目光短浅的行为,是错误的。他指出,世界必须找到一种新的平衡,从而战胜贫困,实现共同繁荣。他给出的答案就是“开放”。

In his widely noted speech, Xi argued that it is shortsighted and wrong to blame “economic globalization” for the current contradictions and “imbalance.” He said that the world must find a new equilibrium, combat poverty, and create prosperity for all. His prescription is openness. 

习主席热忱呼吁建立自由的全球经济:“我们要坚定不移发展全球自由贸易和投资,在开放中推动贸易和投资自由化、便利化,旗帜鲜明地反对保护主义。”

And his plea for a free global economy was passionate:“We must remain committed to developing global free trade and investment, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation through opening up, and say no to protectionism.”

作为一名德国公民和一家德国之外的营收占公司总营收的87%、并在中国拥有31000名员工的公司的首席执行官,我完全支持习主席的呼吁。国际贸易无论对中国还是德国来说都有着举足轻重的意义。

As a German citizen and as the CEO of a company that generates 87 percent of its revenues outside Germany and employs more than 31,000 people in China, I fully support this plea. The economies of both China and Germany rely heavily on international trade.

中 国是世界第一出口大国,德国出口位居全球第三。2016年,中国首次成为德国最重要的贸易合作伙伴。同样对中国来说,德国是一个有着特殊吸引力的商业市 场:中国企业去年在德国进行的直接投资达到了约130亿美元,创历史新高。我们两大经济体通过贸易紧密联系在一起,在价值链上的相互渗透程度也越来越深。

China is the No. 1 exporting nation in the world and Germany is No. 3. In 2016, China was also Germany’s most important trade partner for the first time. Vice versa, Germany is an especially attractive place for China to do business: Chinese companies made direct investments of roughly US$13 billion in Germany last year, more than ever before. Our economies are linked by strong trade ties; our value chains are increasingly intertwined.

在此背景之下,显然,中国和德国都将获益于不断降低的贸易壁垒与透明、开放的投资环境。终极目标是创建一个“公平的竞争环境”,让两国的企业得到平等的机会。这应包括有效和可靠的知识产权保护,以及采用共同的国际技术标准,特别是在面向未来的发展领域如“工业4.0”或是中国提出“中国制造2025”战略方面。

Against this backdrop, it is obvious that China and Germany will benefit from a continuing reduction of trade barriers and a transparent, open investment climate. The ultimate goal should be a “level playing field” where Chinese and German companies have equal opportunity. This should include effective and reliable protection of intellectual property rights as well as the adoption of joint international technology standards –especially in future growth fields like “Industrie 4.0” or its Chinese equivalent, “Made in China 2025.”

打造经济竞争力,迈向中高端

On the path to an advanced, competitive economy

全球范围内的思想、技术和产品交流为所有国家的发展带来了新机遇。中国希望通过“十三五”规划来抓住这一机遇。“十三五”规划致力于将由出口和投资拉动的经济模式转变为创新驱动的经济模式。

The global exchange of ideas, technologies, and products opens up new opportunities for all countries. With the 13th Five-Year Plan, China seeks to seize these opportunities. The Plan calls for a transition from an economy driven by exports and investment to an economy driven by innovation.

中 国在继续稳步、持续、坚定地推进结构性改革。工商企业正在稳步推进现代化改造,政府坚定地提倡发展面向未来需求的科学技术。新的关注点不再是两位数的经济 增长率,而是关注经济质量的提高,“新常态”正是实现这一目标的举措。目标是到2025年,让“中国制造”成为创新和品质的代名词。

The People‘s Republic continues to enact structural reforms prudently, sustainably, and consistently. Business and industry are being modernized step by step. And the government is resolutely promoting promising technologies. Instead of double-digit growth rates, the focus is now on qualitative growth, with the “new normal” as the measure. The goal is for products “Made in China” to be synonymous with innovation and quality by the year 2025.

这一改革无疑是项艰巨的任务。作为一个来自德国——一个全国人口“仅有”8300多万的国家的旁观者,需要很丰富的想象力来理解中国这样一个有着14亿人口、经济总产值占全球1/7的经济体的改革工程的巨大体量。

This transformation is undoubtedly an enormous undertaking. For observers from Germany, a country with “only” about 83 million inhabitants, it takes some imagination to grasp the dimensions of this project: China has a population of 1.4 billion people and accounts for one-seventh of the global economic output. 

幸运的是,中国领导人并未低估这项任务的庞大规模。中国力求在2049年也就是中华人民共和国成立100周年之际完成改革计划,这一决定值得高度尊重。

Fortunately, China’s leadership does not underestimate the magnitude of this undertaking, and it deserves greatest respect for aiming to complete this transformation by 2049, when the People‘s Republic will celebrate the 100th anniversary of its founding. 

显然,“十三五”规划是中国实现经济可持续发展的机遇。然而,变革随着时间推移才能日渐成效。在这一过程中,还需要坚持不懈和持之以恒,以及未来道路上不断进行调适。

Clearly, the 13th Five-Year Plan is an opportunity for China to achieve sustainable economic development. However, it will take time for changes to have an impact. Patience and consistency will be needed, as well as continuous reforms along the way. 

数字化的影响

The impact of digitalization

今天,数字化是实现增长、提高竞争力和创造更优质生活的最有效手段。数字化将帮助我们在未来的数十年中在许多领域取得长足进步,并将继续改变所有行业。

Today, digitalization is the most effective way to generate growth, boost competitiveness, and raise quality of life. It will enable us to make tremendous progress in many fields in the coming decades and it has already and will continue to transform all industries. 

制造业对中德两国来说格外重要,因为两国的经济都对其高度依赖。尽管数字化可以将制造业的生产效率提升到更高的水平,但是其对于社会的影响还很难预测。

Manufacturing is of particular relevance to China and Germany because the economies of both countries rely so heavily on it. While the digitalization of manufacturing has the potential to push productivity to new heights, its impact on society is difficult to predict.

据估测,当前工作岗位中,约有一半将在未来数年间实现自动化。如果出现这种情况,对劳动力市场的影响将是巨大的,特别是在制造业。在第四次工业革命时代,如果机器能够完成大部分的日常工作,那么人类在“工业4.0”时代将怎么办?工人需要具备什么样的技能?

According to some estimates, roughly half of today’s jobs will be automated in the coming years. If that scenario comes true, the impact on the labor market will be massive, in particular in manufacturing. If machines perform most of the routine tasks in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, in Industrie 4.0, what will humans do? And what skills will workers need?

我们不能预测未来,但目前已经确定无疑的一点是:只有能够创造出足够的、新的高收入岗位,并且工人能够得到必要的培训,经济转型才会成功。我们必须确保整个社会能够从数字化中受益。

We cannot predict the future, but one thing is already certain today: The transformation of our economies will only be a success if it creates enough new, well-paying jobs and if workers receive training for these jobs. We must make sure that society as a whole benefits from digitalization. 

二十世纪后半叶,德国经济重镇鲁尔区在经历了严峻的危机后,开展了一场相似的转型。当时,煤炭和钢铁这两大关键行业逐步衰退。

In the second half of the 20th century, Germany‘s economic powerhouse, the Ruhr Region, underwent a similar transformation, which was preceded by severe crisis. Two key industries, coal and steel, started crumbling.

正是在此期间,德国逐渐意识到稳步推进和以负责任的方式开展行动至关重要。成功实施转型,仅仅打造新的产业是不够的,还要为新的产业的从业人员提供相应的培训和教育。

During this time, Germany learned how important it is to act prudently and responsibly. Managing a transformation successfully not only involves developing new industries; it also involves training and educating people for the new jobs in those industries. 

通过提供培训和教育助力中国的伟大转型

Supporting China‘s Great Transformation by providing training and education 

中国政府了解跨国企业在经济振兴中可以发挥的重要作用。但跨国企业也必须懂得,中国需要可靠的、拥有长远的大局观并勇于面对挑战的合作伙伴。西门子正是这样的合作伙伴。

China’s government understands that multinational companies have the potential to play a vital role in the renewal of its economy. But multinationals must also understand that China needs reliable partners, partners who think long term and do not sidestep the challenges ahead. Siemens is that kind of partner. 

西门子于1872年进入中国市场。多年来,西门子一直为本土员工提供培训项目。2011 年,西门子与中国教育部签署了一份教育合作备忘录,承诺为中国的大专院校和职业培训机构提供工程专业人才培训。

Siemens has been active in China since 1872. And for many years, our company has offered training programs for local employees. In 2011, Siemens signed a memorandum of understanding with China’s Ministry of Education that set forth the company‘s commitment to contribute to the training of engineering professionals at universities and vocational schools. 

截 止到 2015 年底,西门子在中国教育领域投入的资金、设备和软件总价值达到 7.11 亿元人民币。2016年,西门子续签了教育合作备忘录,承诺在中德两国友好合作的框架下,为中国的国家战略“中国制造 2025”培养更多的创新人才。作为对西门子在教育推广等各方面所作出的努力的认可,西门子公司2016年被授予“CSR中国教育奖”最佳可持续发展奖。 这一奖项也是中国教育领域唯一的官方奖项。

Up to the end of 2015, the company invested RMB711 million in China. This figure includes equipment, and software. In line with China’s national strategy “Made in China 2025” and within the framework of Sino-German cooperation, Siemens renewed the MoU in 2016 with the aim of promoting the education of innovative talents. In recognition of these and other efforts, Siemens received the Best Sustainability Award of the Corporate Social Responsibility China Education Awards in 2016. These are the only official awards for education in China.

除 了提供职业培训的机会,西门子还为能力突出的技术人员提供就业机会。目前西门子在中国拥有约31000 名员工,其中约有 4500 人在我们的研发中心工作,这其中就包括去年刚刚投入运营的西门子中国研究院苏州院。同时,西门子新成立的专注初创业务的 “next47””也在中国设立了办事处。

In addition to vocational training, Siemens also offers jobs for highly qualified workers. Of the 31,000 Siemens employees in China, about 4,500 work in our research and development centers, including the new research center in Suzhou that we opened just last year. Also, next47, the unit we just founded to bundle our start-up activities, has hubs in China.

我们凭借广泛的本地化业务,积极参与“中国制造2025”、“互联网+”、“新型城镇化”以及“一带一路”,成为中国经济发展道路上强有力的技术合作伙伴。

Our large local footprint enables us to be a strong technology partner for China in the ongoing development of its economy – for “Made in China 2025”, for Internet+, for “new urbanization”, for “One Belt, One Road”. 

西门子在数字制造领域的专业技术和经验能够为中国带来巨大的帮助。凭借数字化技术,我们全球闻名的德国安贝格工厂的产量在过去 25 年里增长了八倍,而同期员工总数则几乎保持不变。持续培训是取得这一成就的先决条件。

China can benefit from our expertise and experience in the digitalization of manufacturing. Thanks to digital technologies, the output of our world-class factory in the German town of Amberg has risen eightfold over the last 25 years, while the number of employees has remained roughly the same over the same period. Continuous training is a big part of this success story. 

安贝格数字化工厂的“姊妹工厂”位于成都,也是我们在德国以外建立的第一家数字化工厂。自成都工厂建成以来,西门子已经和中国地方政府部门以及众多本土公司建立了合作伙伴关系,共同开拓数字制造的机遇。

This factory has a “twin” in China. Our digital factory in Chengdu is almost an identical copy of the factory in Amberg. And it‘s the first digital factory Siemens built outside Germany. Since it was built, Siemens has formed partnerships with local government and a broad range of local companies in order to jointly explore the opportunities offered by digital manufacturing.

环保与应对气候变化

Protecting the environment and fighting climate change

中国政府意识到环保已经成为中国面临的最大挑战之一。到2030年,中国希望单位GDP碳排放在2005年的基础上降低60%到65%。

The Chinese government understands that environmental protection is one of the biggest challenges China faces. By the year 2030, it aims to lower the carbon intensity of GDP by an impressive 60 to 65 percent relative to 2005. 

为实现这一目标,中国计划推进化石能源的清洁高效利用,并持续大力发展可再生能源。同时,国家级的碳排放交易系统也在筹备中,建成后将成为全球最大的碳交易体系。

To achieve that, the government plans to make the use fossil fuels cleaner and more efficient and to invest substantially in the expansion of renewable energy. Also, a nationwide emissions trading systems is in preparation. Once established, it will be the largest system of its kind in the world. 

西门子的创新科技可以帮助中国完成这些宏伟的目标。例如,西门子向位于香港屯门的全新联合循环电厂龙鼓滩电厂提供了高效技术,为香港的可持续能源发展做出了贡献。

Innovative technologies from Siemens can help China achieve these ambitious goals. For example, Siemens contributes to a sustainable future in Hong Kong by delivering highly efficient technology for a new combined-cycle power plant, the Black Point Power Station in Tuen Mun.

龙鼓滩发电厂计划于2020年前投入运营,总装机容量将达到550兆瓦,每月能够为约百万家庭提供电力。这是西门子在大中华区获得的首个H级燃气轮机订单。

Scheduled to go into operation before 2020, the plant will have a total capacity of 550 megawatts and supply approximately one million households with electricity. This is the first order for our biggest gas turbine, the so-called H-class, in Greater China.

西门子也正在参与世界上最长的高压直流(HVDC)输电线路的建设工作,这条线路将跨越将近3300公里,连接昌吉和古泉两地,输电量将达到12吉瓦。这条线路使用的变压器目前正在我们位于德国纽伦堡和广州的工厂进行生产。

Siemens is also involved in building the world’s longest high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission line. It will connect Changji and Guquan over a distance of almost 3,300 kilometers and has a capacity of 12 gigawatts. The transformers for this line are built both in Nuremberg, Germany, and in Guangzhou.

上海中心大厦总高度为632米,是全球第二高建筑和中国最高建筑。它也是世界上安全性最高、最可靠和环保的摩天大楼,而做到这些,凭借的正是由西门子提供的先进楼宇科技。

At a height of 632 meters, Shanghai Tower is the world’s second tallest building and the tallest building in China. It is also one of the world’s safest, most reliable and eco-friendly skyscrapers in the world, thanks to advanced building technologies from Siemens. 

服务社会170年

Serving society for 170 years

我们的公司创始人维尔纳·冯·西门子首先确立了公司的目标。他认为科学与工程应该服务于公共利益。170年间,西门子始终不忘初心,为提高人们的生活质量和为社会创造持久价值提供技术支持。

It was Werner von Siemens, the founder of our company, who first defined the purpose of the company. He said that science and engineering should be applied for the common good. Siemens has remained true to that purpose for 170 years by providing technologies that improve quality of life and create lasting value for society. 

今天,我们以《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》作为为社会创造价值的行动指南。这一议程中设定了17项可持续发展目标。根据这些目标,我们确立了与国家发展相关的议题,以及达成这些目标的衡量标准,我们称之为“企业社会价值”。

Today, our reference for determining the value we create for society is the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It sets out 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Working from these goals, we identify issues relevant to the development of a country and measure how we contribute to reaching them. We call this approach “Business to Society.”

例如,我们在中国及全球范围内帮助客户降低二氧化碳排放。2016财年,西门子环保业务组合的产品和解决方案已经帮助客户减少5.21亿吨二氧化碳排放,相当于德国每年碳排放总量的60%左右。

For example, in China and all over the world, we help customers reduce CO2 emissions. In fiscal 2016, the products and solutions of our environmental portfolio enabled customers to reduce their CO2 emissions by 521 million metric tons. That’s equivalent to about 60 percent of the annual CO2 emissions of Germany. 

同 时,我们也身体力行减少自己的碳排放足迹:西门子是全球第一家承诺于2020年实现二氧化碳减排50%,并于2030年实现碳中和的大型工业企业。西门子 于2015年9月开始实施碳中和计划,目前已经比原计划提前完成阶段性目标。我们已经能够看到在提高能效和降低二氧化碳方面的投入取得回报。

But we are also reducing our own carbon footprint: Siemens is the first major industrial company to commit to cutting CO2 emissions by half by 2020 and to being carbon neutral by 2030. We launched our carbon neutral program in September 2015, and we are meeting our goals sooner than originally planned. It‘s already evident that investments in energy efficiency and CO2 reduction are paying off. 

我 们在可持续发展方面的贡献屡屡荣获优秀评级。西门子连续17年入围道琼斯可持续发展指数(DJSI)评选;瑞士可持续投资公司RobecoSAM授予西门 子业内最佳可持续发展公司之一的荣誉。我们的表现同样得到非营利性国际组织CDP的认可,我们被认为是在供应链中推行低碳科技、应对气候变化危机和减少碳 足迹方面做得最好的企业之一。

Our contribution to sustainable development has been confirmed by excellent ratings. Siemens has been included in the DJSI World Index for 17 consecutive years. RobecoSAM rates our company as one of the most sustainable companies in our industry. And CDP has recognized our performance by rating us among the best when it comes to capturing business opportunities arising from low-carbon technologies, mitigating climate risks, and reducing the carbon footprint in our supply chain.

西门子在全球超过200个国家开展业务。在西门子所及之处,我们承诺通过提供改善生活质量的科技来支持可持续发展。这正是我们服务中国乃至全球社会的方式。

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